COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING:

AN OVERVIEW 

By.....Bamrung Torat "….Technology is not a panacea or a magic bullet that suddenly transforms all learning. The effectiveness of educational technology depends on how it is employed to meet educational goals for particular kinds of students in specific language learning environments…." (Oxford and others, 1998: 13) INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of this resource booklet is to give Thai university English language teachers a brief overview of the development of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and how computers have been used or can be used for English language teaching (ELT) and learning. Its focus is on the history of CALL, uses of CALL in English language teaching, and advantages and limitations of CALL.

The chapter is divided into 5 sections: (1) Definition of CALL, (2) History of CALL Development, (4) Uses of CALL in English Language Teaching, (5) Advantages and Limitations of CALL, and (6) Tips in using CALL. A CALL bibliography (printed materials and online resources), as a resource for interested ELT teachers, is available at the end of the volume.

Definition of CALL

Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is defined as "the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning." (Levy, 1997: 1) The main aim of CALL is to find ways for using computers for the purpose of teaching and learning the language. More specifically, CALL is the use of computer technologies that promote educational learning, including word processing, presentation packages, guided drill and practice, tutor, simulation, problem solving, games, multimedia CD-ROM, and internet applications such as e-mail, chat and the World Wide Web (WWW) for language learning purposes. There are several terms associated with CALL. CALL is variously known as Computer-Aided Language Learning (CALL), Computer-Assisted Language Instruction (CALI) and Computer-Enhanced Language Learning (CELL). The first two terms generally refer to computer applications in language learning and teaching, while CELL implies using CALL in a self-access environment (Hoven, 1999).
 
 
 
 
 
 

Why CALL?

The reasons why ELT teachers use CALL: HISTORY OF CALL DEVELOPMENT This section gives a brief history of CALL development. The review aims at showing, chronologically, the development of CALL over the last 30 years by linking to important technological developments, theories of learning and language teaching approaches. Some key examples of CALL programs and projects developed in this period are also shown.

Warschauer (1996) divides CALL into phases of development as follows: Behavioristic CALL, Communicative CALL, Integrative CALL (Multimedia CD-ROM), and Integrative CALL (Internet). The beginning of a new phase does not necessary mean the end of programs and methods of the previous phase, rather the old is included within the new (Warschauer, 1996).

The historical development of CALL is summarized in the following table:
 
 
 
 
 
 

Behavioristic CALL
 
Main-frame and Mini Computers (1950s-1970s)
Technological Development

by Year

Approaches to Language Teaching
Approaches to CALL &

Examples

  • 1950 - Mathematician and computer pioneer Alan Turing predicted that one day there would be a machine that could duplicate human intelligence in every way.
  • 1951- Whirlwind, the first real-time computer was built.
  • 1957- FORTRAN language was developed.
  • 1959-COBOL (Common Business-Orientated Language) was developed.
  • 1960-Tandy Corporation founded.
  • 1964-DEC Mini Computer was built.
  • 1965-BASIC language was developed.
  • 1967-Development on PASCAL
  • 1968-LOGO language was developed.
  • 1970-Development of UNIX operating system.
  • 1971-First Microprocessor-4004 was invented.
  • 1972-C language was developed.
  • 1972-8008 Processor was released by Intel.
  • 1972-The first international connections to ARPANET are established. ARPANET became the basis for the internet.
  • 1974-Introduction of 8080. An 8 Bit Microprocessor from Intel.
  • 1975-Formation of Microsoft by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.
  • 1976-Apple Computer, Inc. founded, releasing the Apple II, first mass-market of PC.
  • 1979-Introduction of 8088 processor.
  • 1979-Compact disk was invented.
  • Empiricist theory
  • Behaviorism
  • Audiolingualism
  • Structural Linguistics
Principles of Language Learning:
  • Focus on stimulus, response, reinforcement.
  • Language learning is a process of habit-formation.
  • Focus on drill and practice.
  • Learn through imitation and repetition.
  • Give immediate feedback.
  • Individualized instruction was included to serve the pace of the learner.
Behavioristic CALL

(eg. PLATO project:

Aims at providing interactive, self-paced learning using mainframe computers.)

Main characteristics of behavioristic CALL:

  • Based on behaviorist theory of learning.
  • Focus on receptive drills.
  • Mainly drill and practice type software.
  • Computer as tutor.
  • Learning activities promote language accuracy rather than fluency.
  • Designed to be implemented on mainframe and mini computers.
Criticism of Behavioristic CALL: The Behaviorism and Audiolingualism were rejected theoretically and pedagogically by theorists and practitioners.

 

Communicative CALL
 
Personal Computers (PC) (1980s)
Technological Development 

by Year

Approaches to Language Teaching
Approaches to CALL &

Examples

  • 1980-Development of MS-DOS/PC-DOS began by Microsoft
  • 1981-The first WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing Devices) by The Xerox Palo Alto Research Lab.
  • 1982-The TCP/IP Protocol established, and the "Internet" is formed.
  • 1982-80286 processor was released.
  • Compaq released their IBM PC compatible
  • 1983-MS-DOS 2.0 was released.
  • Hewlett-Packard released LaserJet printer
  • AT was released.
  • Apple Macintosh was released.
  • 1984- MS-DOS 3.0 was released.
  • 80386 DX was released.
  • 1985- Microsoft Windows was launched.
  • 1985- EGA was released.
  • 1985 - 80386 DX was released
  • VGA was released
  • 1988 - MS-DOS 4.
The development of word processing such as:
  • WordMaster
  • WordStar
  • WordPerfect
Cognitive 

Psychology

Communicative Language Teaching

Transformational Grammar

Principles of Language Learning:

  • Learning is process of discovery, expression, and development.
  • Focus on functions of the language.
  • Emphasise on language use rather than usage.
  • Contextualization is important.
  • Communicative competence is the desired goal.
  • Focus on using language forms rather than forms themselves.
  • Teach grammar implicitly.
Encourage students to produce language rather than manipulate the language, (Brown, 1994).
Communicative CALL:

(e.g. Storyboard,

Text reconstruction,

Cloze exercises) 

  • Serious educational applications appeared.
  • A boom of CALL due to the introduction of Personal Computer
Main Characteristics:
  • View that drill and practice exercises did not yield enough genuine communication.
  • Computer-based activities
  • Focus on using the language in context.
  • Non-Drill Practice format Type
  • Text reconstruction
  • Paced reading
  • Cloze exercises
Criticism of Communicative CALL: Computers were not fully well integrated into the curriculum. The greater contribution is on marginal rather than the central educational elements.

 
 
 

Integrative CALL: multimedia CD-ROM
 
Multimedia CD-ROM (1980s-1990s)
Technological Development 

by Year

Approaches to Language Teaching
Approaches to CALL &

Examples

  • 1982 Audio CDs was introduced
  • 1982 Book on Audio CDs was introduced by Sony and Phillips--beginning of the Compact Disk
  • 1982 MIDI, Musical Instrument Digital Interface was introduced.
  • CD-ROM, invented by Phillips, produced by Sony
  • 1989 CD-I released by Phillips and Sony.
  • 1989 Release of Sound Blaster Card, by Creative Labs
  • 1990 Introduction of Windows 3.0 by Bill Gates & Microsoft.
  • 1990 - MPC (Multimedia PC) was introduced.
  • 1991 - 80486 DX was released. A sound card and triple speed CD-ROM were added.
  • 1992 Introduction of CD-I launched by Phillips.
  • 1993 Pentium released
  • 1993 a CD-ROM drive capable of 300KB/sec (double speed) was introduced.
Humanistic Approach
  • Focus on Communicative Language Teaching:
  • Focus on meaning.
  • Use of authentic, meaningful and contextualized materials.
  • Fluency in language is a primary goal.
  • Focus on interactive language learning.
  • Consider learners’ factors such as age, interest, learning styles, motivation.
  • Tasks relevant to students’ real life interests and experiences (Felix, 1998)
  • Shift away from language usage to language use (Felix, 1998)
  • The teacher became a facilitator rather than the person who gives out information.
Integrative CALL:Multimedia CD- ROM

(eg.Toolbook, Authorware, Planet English, Real English, Wiser Educator)

Main Characteristics

Use advantages of multimedia CD-ROM in teaching language for communicative purposes.

  • Allow computer to incorporate a variety of media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) by Hypermedia. 
  • Emerge of friendly-user, powerful authoring software such as ToolBook, Authorware, and Director.
  • Based on communicative language teaching approach
  • Built on student's intrinsic motivation
  • Foster the interactivity between the learner and the learner, and learner and computer.
  • Multimedia resources are linked together.
  • Learners can navigate their own path and set their own pace by pointing and clicking mouse.
  • More authentic language learning environment is created. 
  • The four language skills are integrated. 
  • Focus on content and language skills.
  • Allow learners to link to a variety of sources such as grammatical explanations, glossaries, pronunciation, exercises, etc.

 
 
 

Integrative CALL: internet applications
 
Computer-Mediated Communication (Internet) (1990s)
Technological Development 

by Year

Approaches to Language Teaching
Approaches to CALL &

Examples

  • 1969-Computer-mediated communication (CMC) but serious applications appeared in early 1990s.
  • 1960s-Hypertext was invented by Ted Nelson.
  • 1989- World Wide Web--the integration of hypertext and the Internet- was invented by Tim Berners-Lee.
  • 1990- Internet applications became popular such as E-mail, FTP, Talk (UNIX system)
  • 1992- Gopher was released.
  • The release of CERN (WWW), a hypertext based system for finding and accessing internet resources.
  • 1993- Mosaic (Web browser) was released.)
  • 1994- Netscape 1.0 was released.
  • 1995- Windows '95 was launched with Internet Explorer by Bill Gates & Microsoft.
  • 1995 - JavaScript was introduced by Netscape.
  • 1998 – Windows’98 was released.
  • 1995-1999 - Development of:
  • QuickTime
  • Real Audio 
  • Real Movie
  • Shockwave
  • Web-based E-mail 
  • Web-based Chat
  • Voice Chat
  • Internet Phone
  • Emerge of web authoring software such as Hot Potatoes, Authorware, and Director.
  • Desktop Conferencing 
Communicative Language Teaching

Focus on using the internet applications for communicative language teaching:

  • Foreign language learning will be an acquisition of language content through purposeful and reflective participation.
  • The curriculum is dynamic.
  • The role of the teacher is a facilitator, an inseminator of ideas, who draws student’s motivation.
  • The learner is responsible, reflective and creative.
  • Textbook is a resource along with electronic resources.
  • Classroom becomes a reconfigurable space with electronic facilities.
(Debski (1997:47-48)
Integrative CALL: Internet Applications

(eg. E-mail communication, FTP, World Wide Web, Chat, Gopher sites, MOO servers, CU-SeeMe, Desktop Video Conferencing)

  • Aim at integrating computer-mediated communication applications for communicative language teaching as follows:
E-mail
  • Allow learners to have direct communication around the globe.
FTP 
  • Allow learners and teachers to download documents, graphics, sounds, videos, and animation.
WWW
  • Learners search and share different kinds of files on the internet (documents, graphics, sounds, video, animation).
Chat: 
  • Allow learners to have real time communication.
Main Characteristics:
  • Allow computer to incorporate a variety of media from the internet such as text, graphics, sound, animation, and video.
  • Internet resources are linked together by Hypermedia. 
  • Based on communicative. language teaching approach.
  • Built on student's intrinsic motivation for authentic communication.
  • Encourage interactivity between the learner and internet users around the world. 
  • More authentic language learning environments are created. 
  • The four language skills are integrated (listening, speaking, reading, and writing).
  • Focus on a variety of content and multi-cultures.

USES OF CALL IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

This section gives a brief overview of how CALL has been used or can be used for the purpose of language learning and teaching. The use of CALL can be divided as follows: (1) Computer as Drill and Practice, (2) Computer as Tutor (3) Computer as Simulation / Problem Solving, (4) Computer as Game, (5) Computer as Tool for ELT teachers and learners, and (6) Applications of Internet for ELT.

Computer as drill and practice

In this use of CALL, computers are viewed as a tool for saving time with the immediate feedback. The learning principles behind Drill and Practice is the Behaviorism Learning Theory and the Audiolingual approach language to teaching. The main aim of Drill and Practice is to review the content / background knowledge, and to assist the learners to master separate language skills (such as reading, listening, etc.)

Drill and practice consists of three steps: Providing stimulus; Receiving active response from the learner; and Giving immediate feedback.

There are several types of drill and practice activities (exercises) such as Paired Associate (Matching); Sentence Completion; Multiple Choice; Part Identification; True-False; and Short-Answer questions.

Well-designed Drill and Practice programs can record the learner’s progress and scores and the time a student spends on each exercise. Some programs add timing features to help the learner to control their speed while practicing. Drill and practice CALL programs in the early years focused on practicing language skills and components separately (such as vocabulary, grammar (such as irregular verbs, past tense, articles), reading, and translation. A lot of drill and practice exercises were produced by classroom teachers. There are several limitations of Drill and Practice exercises such as the lack of interaction and content materials which are not authentic, meaningful, and contextualized (Felix, 1998). As a result, the receptive language drill and practice programs of the 1960s –1970s did not produce enough authentic communication for the learners.

Another type of Drill and Practice is so called "contextualized activities" such as gap filling, reconstructing texts, etc. Examples of these programs are those developed in early 1980s such as Cloze exercises, Text reconstruction, and Eclipse (by Higgins), etc. A key authoring program used to generate text reconstruction is Storyboard, written by John Higgins (Levy, 1997).
 
 
 
 

Computer as tutor

The role of the computer as tutor is to present to the learners the content of the lesson as text graphics, video, animation, or slides, including learning activities, drills and practice. The computer serves as a means for delivering instructional materials.

The program consists of the following stages: Introduction stage (stating aims, background knowledge), Presentation of the content, exercises and/or testing; and Giving the feedback.

Examples of CALL tutorial programs are:

Computer used for simulation / problem solving

Simulations and problem solving is used to foster analysis, critical thinking, discussion and writing activities. The computer is not used much for tutorial purposes. The program is designed to create language interaction through problematic situations, conditions or problems challenging for the learner to solve. Many simulation programs are problem solving games, which are entertaining and educational ("edutainment").

Oregon Trail (1995-1998) (CD-ROM)<http://www.cd-romlink.com> is one of the earliest educational simulation problem solving games. The learners are challenged to make a series of decisions to guide their party from Missouri to Oregon by covered wagon. These decisions begin with choosing a departure date, through the daily decisions relating to pace, restocking and direction. The learners face a series of obstacles: fires, floods, injuries, no water, bad water, no grass, food spoilage, etc. The learners have to make life-or-death decisions. Though Oregon Trail is not directly designed for ELT classes, the teacher can create learning activities in both receptive and productive skills.

Other educational simulation problem solving games are Carmen Sandiego, A Day in the Life (1995), and Carmen Sandiego Word Detective (1999), which helps learners to master essential language skills, Amazon Trail II (The Learning Company) which is a simulation of a trip up the Amazon River.

Computer as game

The main principle behind computer gaming is that "Learning is Fun." The main aim is to create a pleasurable learning environment , and to motivate the language learner. However, good educational games should have clear educational objectives.

CALL games and simulation games are similar in that both are designed to motivate students to learn through entertainment. However, they are different in certain ways. Simulation games always use simulations (real life situations) in the presentation of a game, while CALL games focus on providing fun, but challenging environment to the learner. Though CALL games have clear learning objectives, they are different from Tutorials and Drill and Practice. The main function of CALL games is not so much to present the language content as tutorials do but to provide entertainment to the learner.

Examples of CALL vocabulary games are Spelling Games, Spelling Bee and Magic Hat, Scrambled Word, Word Worm, Hangman, Word Order, Find a Word, Word Puzzles, Spelling Buddy, Cross Words, I Love Spelling (DK multimedia), Scrabble Deluxe (Virgin Games) (Computerized version of the board game), etc.
 
 

Computer as tool for teachers and learners

Word Processors

The most common tool used by teachers and learners in CALL is probably word processors. Word Processors are tools for creating documents for making handouts, sheets, desktop publishing, letters, and flyers for language teaching and learning. There is a variety of word processors available, ranging from high quality programs such as Microsoft Word <http://www.microsoft.com>, Corel Word Perfect <http://www.corel.com > to simpler and cheaper programs such as Microsoft Works<http:www.microsoft.com>, and Claris Works <http://www.apple.com/appleworks>. Teachers can choose ones suitable for their students.

Spelling Checkers

Spelling checkers are tools for ELT teachers and learners for conducting spelling check. Most high quality word processing programs such as Microsoft Word, Word Perfect have built in spelling checkers. However, there are separate spelling checking programs available such as Spell it Deluxe (1997) <http://www.davd.com>, or Sentry Spelling-Checker Engine.

Grammar Checkers

ELT teachers can use grammar checker programs to check and point out grammatical problems in writing. Like spelling checkers, grammar checkers can be a separate program such as Grammatik or built-in programs such as the Grammar Check in Microsoft Word. However, these grammar checkers still have limited abilities and are intended for native speakers. So they are not recommended for ESL/EFL learners since they may be confusing.

Concordancers

Teachers and learners can use concordancing software to search in huge databases to find all the uses of particular words. It might be confusing for ESL/EFL beginners. The best Concordancer for ELT teachers and students is Oxford MicroConcord . The software includes a total of about 1,000,000 words from British newspapers.

Collaborative Writing

Collaborative writing is software that helps the learner to write collaboratively on computers, which are linked in a local area network. Daedalus Integrated Writing Environment is the most popular one. This software includes real-time discussion, word processing, electronic mail, brainstorming, and a dictionary.

Reference

At present many CD versions of encyclopedias, dictionaries, thesauruses, maps and other references are available to the teachers and learners. Popular reference CD-ROM programs are Microsoft Encarta 99 < http://www.iac-on-encarta.com/>, Longman Dictionary of American English, Oxford Picture Dictionary CD-ROM (1997) <http://www.oup-usa.org>and BookShelf <http://www.Microsoft.com>. Microsoft Encarta Interactive World Atlas 2000 <Http//www.microsoft.com> Roget 's thesaurus.com <http://www.thesaurus.com/>, WordWeb, (a thesaurus /dictionary), Collins On-Line Dictionaries, American Heritage Dictionary (Softkey); Longman Multimedia Dictionary, Grammar Reference (US English grammar usage), American Heritage Talking Dictionary (The Learning Company). Please note that entries in many of these programs may be biased towards the country of origin.

Generally, ELT teachers use commercially available CALL software. However, much software does not meet the demand of the learners or does not suit the learning objectives. Teachers need to adapt or create their own materials from scratch. In this case, the teacher has to become an author, or a teacher-programmer (Levy, 1997). The authoring software allows teachers to select appropriate content and learning activities according to their students’ needs. There is a variety of authoring software ranging from pre-scripted authoring programs such as Authorware (Macromedia), Toolbook (Asymetrix Corporation), etc. which requires the user to write scripts, to customized template authoring programs and allow the teacher to create customized teaching activities and exercises such as Storyboard, Clozemaker, ChoiceMaster, GapMaster in Wida’s Authoring Suite, Wiser Educator, Author Plus (Clarity Language Consultants), Authorware Attain (Macromedia).

Internet applications

Computers can be connected to the internet and can incorporate interactive multimedia: text, graphics, audio, video, and animation. It can be said that the explosive growth of the internet has given new life to interactive media and CALL.

To access text, graphics, audio, video, and animation published on the internet, the teacher and learner need to use "Web browser" software, a computer based graphical program that allows users to search and explore information on the internet. Common Web browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. It is expected that the internet will become one of the most popular mediums for CALL because it allows for world-wide distance education.

 The use of the internet is easy. The user usually interacts just by clicking the mouse. Easy navigation is an advantage of using the internet in linking to different sites around the world.

The followings are internet applications that ELT teachers can use for language teaching.

Electronic mail (E-mail)

 Computer-mediated communication makes it easy for ELT learners to have direct authentic communication with the teacher, other learners or interested people around the world by using e-mail. E-mail is an excellent method for teaching interactive writing. One of its advantages is that it provides interaction with native speakers through pen-pal correspondence. E-mail writing is considered to be more personal and meaningful than classroom writing activities. (Felix, 1998). A problem concerning interaction through E-mail is that the communication does not take place at the same time (asynchronous).

There is a variety of e-mail programs that can recommended for the learner. The most popular program on the Unix platform is Pine of Washington University <http://gpu.srv.ualberta.ca/HELP/mail/pine1.html>. Eudora <http://www.eudora.com> and Netscape Mail <http://www.netscape.com> are easy to use. However Pine and Eudora require direct conection to the internet through the server in which the user is a member. If the user wants to access to e-mail anywhere and anyplace in the world, he/she can apply for free web-based e-mail services such as Hotmail.com <http://www.hotmail.com>, Yahoo.com<http://www.yahoo.com>, Mail.com <http://www.mail.com>, AltaVista.com <http://www.AltaVista.com>, etc.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a facility for transferring files over the internet. The original FTP was available on the UNIX system. But now FTP is also available on the web, and it is becoming more user-friendly than the one operating on the UNIX system.

When the user connects to a remote computer with FTP, he/she is communicating between the two machines: one local and one remote. Once you connect to the remote computer with FTP, you can do several jobs concerning files such as sending local files (text and binary--images, and sound) to the remote site, retrieving files from the remote site, changing directories, naming and deleting files both on the local and remote sites.

ELT teachers can use FTP to download or updownload files such as software programs, texts, images, sounds, videos. A lot of FTP sites are vailable on the internet at several servers such as the FTP server at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign < ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/ >Washington University at St. Louis < ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/ >, FTP server at Monash University <ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au>.

World Wide Web (WWW) Computer networks have allowed to conect to information around the world, and share millions of documents—texts, graphics, sounds, and video via hypertext keywords or links. WWW or the web now has absorbed many of the above services. For example, the web can now do e-mail, ftp, chat and voice chat, desktop conferencing, and MOOs (Multiple-user-domains Object Oriented), which allows for real time communication.

The WWW provides a rich resource of "authentic materials" for langauge teaching and learning. Using web browsers such as Netscape <http://www.netscape.com> and Internet Explorer <http://www.microsoft.com/>, the WWW yields good (and bad!) resources for the teacher and the learner. Learners can find information which suits their own interests and fields of study.

The teacher and learner can search for the following materials on WWW:

a) Texts Texts can be downloaded, saved as .html or .text files, and printed and kept as worksheets. Teacher can download suitable texts and put them on the school’s website for further reading assignments or doing English exercises such as grammar, vocabulary, etc. There is a wealth of texts on a variety of topics on the WWW that the teacher and the learner can choose to serve their own interest. You can find texts in almost any field on the WWW. However, there are some limitations on using text files on the WWW. Many web sites consis of poor written texts with grammar and spelling mistakes or poor writing style. The teacher must be selective in choosing text files for ELT learners. A good website is CNN News Room <http://lc.byuh.edu/cnn_n/cnn-n_page.html>. The student will learn both news and do some language exercises such as vocabulary, grammar, reading, etc.
    1. Pictures

    2. Pictures can be very useful in language teaching and learning. Pictures can convey meaning and stimulate language. By using a web browser, teachers can download, save and print pictures and keep them as a resource for language teaching. There is a variety of pictures on the web. Many pictures are copyright free for educational use. AltaVista <http:www.altavista.com>is a good search engine for seaching pictures on the internet.

    3. Audio Files

    4. A lot of web sites provide audio clips that the user can download and store for use in langauge teaching and learning. With advanced technologies such as the RealAudio program <http://www.real.com>, the teacher can download "live" audio files such as news, short stories, songs for use in class and self access center or for individual listening at home. Web sites that provide audio files are such as CNN News<http://www.cnn.com>, BBC English <http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice>, etc.

    5. Video Files

    6. The WWW is also a rich resource for Video files (viedo films, video clips, digital movies). To view video files, there is a need for video and movie viewing programs such as RealVideo<http://www.real.com>, QuickTime Movie<http://www.apple.com/quicktime/>, which can be downloaded from the internet. Useful videos and movies that can be downloaded and saved are: previews of video films, movies, conversations or dialogues among people, news, speeches, and documentary films. Teachers can use videos and movies with other medias, such as textbooks, pictures, handouts, or audio materials. However, there are some technical limitations with downloading video materials. Video clips, which are usually short, are easy to download and manipulate. However, long videos and movies, which need a lot of computer RAM and disk spaces, always cause problems. The computer must be powerful and must have a fast internet connection.

    7. Chat & Voice Chat

    8. Computer-mediated communication allows users to exchange real time instant messages (no time delay as in e-mail). The application of this capacity are chat programs that allow users to connect to remote sites to send and receive instant written messages. "Talk" is an original version of chat on the UNIX system. Web-based chat is easier to use than the UNIX system "talk". Examples of chat programs on the web are: ICQ < http://wwp.icq.com/>, IRC (Internet Relay Chat) < http://www.ircnet.org/>, Yahoo <http://www.yahoo.com>. With the progress in real time audio technologies, voice chat is becoming available (e.g. Yahoo Voice Chat <http://chat.yahoo.com>). Voice chat allows users to exchange real time-instant digital voice messages with users in remote sites.

      Chat provides a strong motivation for interactive and communicative use of language. ELT teachers can use chat sessions as a means for meaningful authentic communication with the real audience. The learner can join several chat groups according to his/her own interest.

    9. Desk-Top Teleconferencing
One of the most important aspects of MOOs (Multiple-user-domains Object Oriented or Multi-User Object Oriented systems) is communication (verbal, nonverbal, expressing feelings) with people connected to the MOO from all around the world. MOOs evolved from MUDs (Multi-User Domains). MOOs allows for real time communication, simulation, and role play among users. The users can build their own new "rooms" and write the description, to determine who could come in and out. The user can even create their own virtual home.

Recently a lot of special MOOs have been set up for ESL learners to participate such as CU-SEEMe <http://www.cuseeme.com>. In using MOOs special client software programs such as TinyFugue (for Unix, MUDDweller (for Mac), or MUDwin (for Windows) are needed.

MOOs provide a strongly motivated means for meaningful authentic communication with a real audience. Those who are interested in this desk-top teleconferencing can join MOOs on many websites such as the CU-SeeMe Website <http://www.cu.seeme.com>, and at Rachel's Super MOO List <http://cinemaspace.berkeley.edu/~rachel/moolist/>.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF CALL

While Section 3 above shows some of the benefits of how CALL can be used for language teaching and learning, CALL also has some limitations. This section reviews advantages and limitations of CALL.

Advantages of CALL

Learner’s Factors Motivation and Attitudes Feedback and Progress Record Teacher’s Roles and the Relationship with the Learner Mastery Learning Co-operative Learning Communication Access to Information and Cultures Learning Environment Cost Effectiveness Limitations of CALL

Cost

Teacher's Attitudes and Anxiety Training Hardware, Compatability, and Technical Support Software
 
 
 
 
 
  Accessing and Searching CALL Feedback and Evaluation TIPS IN USING CALL

The following are tips for ELT teachers in using CALL:

CONCLUSION

CALL has important potential for English language teaching. If used properly with clear educational objectives, CALL can interest and motivate learners of English. CALL can increase information access to the learner, provide flexibility to instruction and thereby better serve the individual's learning pace, cognitive style and learning strategies. CALL allows learners to control their own learning process and progress. Using effective and suitable software applications, CALL can provide communicative meaningful language learning environments. Good quality and well-designed CALL software can offer a balance of controlled practice and free communicative expression to the learners, including immediate feedback. In the future, with the advance of computer technologies, it is expected that CALL will be able to absorb some teaching functions. However, despite greater user-friendliness, and effectiveness, CALL will never replace the teacher. Like other new technologies, CALL is not a magic solution to language teaching. The effectiveness of CALL relies on how CALL is utilized to meet language learning goals for individualized learners in specific educational settings.